form 4 physics electronics

This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator. Extrinsic semiconductor is an improved intrinsic semiconductor with a small amount of impurities added by a process,known as doping, which alters the electrical properties of the semiconductor and improves its conductivity. As the emitter current Ie is the sum of a very small base current plus a very large collector current, the value of alpha α, is very close to unity, and for a typical low-power signal transistor this value ranges from about 0.950 to 0.999. The current therefore conducts on every half cycle hence a half wave rectification is achieved. Post a comment. Semiconductors are available as either elements or compounds. Some of the information on this page may be outdated within a year because new discoveries are made in the field frequently. These include: Many devices come with built in translation facilities from analog to digital. Download Physics Form 4 Notes PDF to Print or Offline Reading . The website of ansoft shows that ePhysics can coupled thermal analysis for Electromagnetic application. According to molecular orbital theory, if several atoms are brought together in a molecule, their atomic orbitals split, producing a number of molecular orbitals proportional to the number of atoms. Semi Conductors. This video will explain all the basic characteristics in waves. Doping is the introduction of impurities in semi-conductors to alter their electronic properties. Some of these semiconductors are therefore called wide band gap semiconductors. Since radio waves have greater range in air than sound or even light waves they are used as carriers of audio (sound) and visual information (TV) waves. HTML code is not allowed. Physics Form 1 to Form 4 Notes. I am not able to find them. Then, PNP transistors use a small base current and a negative base voltage to control a much larger emitter-collector current. In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes those ranges of energy that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands). In the last two amplifier configurations, the signal source was connected to the base lead of the transistor, thus handling the, Because the input current exceeds all other currents in the circuit, including the output current, the current gain of this amplifier is actually, SOLVING EXAMS - NECTA and MOCK To view the solving exams of Necta, click the links below: GEOGRAPHY   HISTORY. Form 4 Physics DVD Virtual lessons. 3 Comments. Radio waves are produced by circuits that make electrons vibrate and they are known as oscillators which produce varied frequencies. Perhaps the most striking characteristic of this configuration is that the input signal source must carry the full emitter current of the transistor, as indicated by the heavy arrows in the first illustration. Knowing now that transistors are able to “throttle” their collector currents according to the amount of base current supplied by an input signal source, we should see that the brightness of the lamp in this circuit is controllable by the solar cell’s light exposure. At the same time, holes cross over from the p-side to the n-side and capture electrons. TOPIC 5: ELECTRONIC. Since the emitter lead of a transistor is the one handling the most current (the sum of base and collector currents, since base and collector currents always mesh together to form the emitter current), it would be reasonable to presume that this amplifier will have a very large current gain. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Forums. They are mainly made of glass or plastic. is electrons.The mass of an electron is very small (9.108 X 10-28 grams). More than 10 scientists and experts from overseas gave frontiers speech and 130 scholars participated in ECNCT 2019. learn about introduction to electronic. What's new. Short Snippet: TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS Physics falls under a broader category of Science. This link between the input and output circuits is the main feature of transistor action because the transistors amplifying properties come from the consequent control which the Base exerts upon the Collector to Emitter current. Chapter 4 - Electronics. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Click the button below to download the full Physics Form 4 Notes pdf document, with all the topics. With digital technology this human speech can be saved and stored in a computer. FORM 6 PHYSICS: ELECTRONICS PART 2. You may like these posts . The Collector is connected to the supply voltage V. So in a NPN Transistor it is the movement of negative current carriers (electrons) through the Base region that constitutes transistor action, since these mobile electrons provide the link between the Collector and Emitter circuits. Be the first to comment! « Previous - RADIOACTIVITY - Form 4 Physics Notes. Band theory derives these bands and band gaps by examining the allowed quantum … Physics Form Four Notes . The transistor is connected to a load resistor through which a load current flows. In other words for a PNP transistor, the Emitter is more positive with respect to the Base and also with respect to the Collector.The construction of a “PNP transistor” consists of two P-type semiconductor materials either side of an N-type material as shown below. Some materials such as glass, paper and Teflon, which have high resistivity, are very good electrical insulators. Forum Activity . Generally, the PNP transistor can replace NPN transistors in most electronic circuits, the only difference is the polarities of the voltages, and the directions of the current flow. I have not use HFSS before and It … The construction and terminal voltages for an NPN transistor are shown above. Koleksi Soalan Peperiksaan Percubaan SPM Fizik; Koleksi Soalan SPM FIZIK; Bank Soalan SPM; Trial Paper Collection 2008; Kertas Percubaan Peperiksaan SPM MRSM ; Koleksi Soalan SM Sains Muzaffar Syah … (Note: Arrow defines the emitter and conventional current flow, “out” for a Bipolar NPN Transistor). Recent … In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from the atoms. PNP transistors can also be used as switching devices and an example of a PNP transistor switch is shown below. A silicon crystal is different from an insulator because at any temperature above absolute zero temperature, there is a finite probability that an electron in the lattice will be knocked loose from its position, leaving behind an electron deficiency called a "hole.". (3 valence electrons) produce p-type semiconductors by producing a "hole" or electron deficiency. They are mainly used for rectification of a.c. current for use by many electrical appliances. Insulators are non-conducting materials with few mobile charges and support only insignificant electric currents. Introducing impurities into the semiconductor materials (. An intrinsic semiconductor material is chemically very pure and possesses poor conductivity. EE Resources. Positive charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte(s) of a battery, or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell. Examples of semiconductors are Silicon, Germanium. At room temperature, a silicon crystal acts like an insulator because only a few free electrons and holes are present. An increased knowledge of semiconductor materials and fabrication processes has made possible continuing increases in the complexity and speed of microprocessors and memory devices. Phosphorous may be added by diffusion of phosphine gas (PH3). One of the most important properties of the. Thin Lences. Also, the current gain of the transistor from the Collector terminal to the Emitter terminal, Ic/Ie, is called Alpha, ( α ), and is a function of the transistor itself (electrons diffusing across the junction). Play Group: Activities, Homework and Syllabus, Pre-Primary One - PP1: Activities, Homework and Exams, Pre-Primary One - PP2: Activities, Homework and Exams, CBC Grade 1: Subjects, Syllabus and Exams, CBC Grade 2: Subjects, Homework and Exams, CBC Grade 3: Exam Papers, Syllabus and Subjects, CBC Grade 4: Exam Papers, Syllabus and Subjects, ACIDS, BASES AND INDICATORS - Form 1 Chemistry Notes, AIR AND COMBUSTION - Form 1 Chemistry Notes, INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY - Form 1 Chemistry Notes, SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES - Form 1 Chemistry Notes, WATER AND HYDROGEN - Form 1 Chemistry Notes, Last modified on Friday, 25 September 2020 07:19, « Previous - RADIOACTIVITY - Form 4 Physics Notes, Install our android app for easier access, Conductors, Insulators and Semi-conductors, Click here to download the full document with all topics, Click here to download the pdf version of "ELECTRONICS - Form 4 Physics Notes", and read the full contents of this page. Best Method to prepare for your Mid Year Exam Form 4 is pick related questions from 1. The depletion layer of the junction reduces to be very thin to allow the flow of electric current. Transistors are used in all electronic devices such as calculators, tv, radios, computers etc. Chapter 3 - Electromagnetism. Best electronics blog and forum MATOKEO DARASA LA SABA 2020 | NECTA PLSE RESULTS 2020/2021; Sample Essays on Betrayal in the City – for candidates ; KILOSA DISTRICT COUNCIL, FORM FOUR PRE … The sound is first changed into electrical vibrations by use of a microphone or other device then added to the radio carrier wave and this changes the amplitude of the carrier and is called amplitude modulation. Intrinsic semi-conductors increase their conductivity with increase in temperature unlike metals.An extrinsic semi-conductor is one which has been doped with impurities to modify its number and type of free charge carriers present. Intrinsic semi-conductors increase their conductivity with increase in temperature unlike metals.An extrinsic semi-conductor is one which has been doped with impurities to modify its number and type of free charge carriers present. Bands may also overlap to produce a bigger single band. Join our whatsapp group for latest updates, PHYSICS PAPER 3 - 2019 KCSE STAREHE MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS), PHYSICS PAPER 3 (CONFIDENTIAL) - 2019 KCSE STAREHE MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS), PHYSICS PAPER 2 - 2019 KCSE STAREHE MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS), PHYSICS PAPER 1 - 2019 KCSE STAREHE MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS), PHYSICS PAPER 3 - 2019 KCSE TAP TRIAL MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS). Relations between the currents and voltages for a black-box device with "k" terminals . Light is a form of ( ). A lens is conventionally defined as a piece of glass which is used to focus or change the direction of a beam of light passing through it.. New posts Search forums. The addition of pentavalent impurities such as antimony, arsenic or phosphorous contributes free electrons, The addition of trivalent impurities such as boron, aluminum or gallium to an intrinsic semiconductor creates deficiencies of valence electrons,called "holes". (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); When your website or blog goes live for the first time, it is exciting. Real time virtual clasroom - Learning has never been this easy. This is achieved by using a transformer whose output has a centre tap that is taken at two points where one is half the other as shown. PHYSICS FORM 4 NOTES PHYSICS FORM 4 NOTES 31.1.0 Thin Lenses (20 Lessons) 32.0.0 Uniform Circular Motion (10 Lessons) 33.0.0 Floating and Sinking (15 Lessons) 34.0.0 Electromagnetic Spectrum (15 Lessons) 35.0.0 Electromagnetic Induction (20 Lessons) 36.0.0 Mains Electricity (10 Lessons) 37.0.0 Cathode Rays and Cathode Ray Tube (10 Lessons) 38.0.0 X-rays (8 Lessons) 39.0.0 Photoelectric […] A lens is conventionally defined as a piece of glass which is used to focus or change the direction of a beam of light passing through it. This is an electronics forum where you can talk about anything related to circuit building, electronic projects and electrical repairs. Single-stage amplifier have only one amplifying device. With increased temperature in a metal, thermal energy causes atoms in metal to vibrate, in this excited state atoms interact with and scatter electrons. The voltage between the Base and Emitter ( V, Then the voltage sources are connected to an NPN transistor as shown. In metals, the conduction band is the valence band. Articles. Thus digital technology opens up the horizon for endless possible uses. Example 2: • When an electric heater is supplied with an electric power of 2kW to heat 4kg of water for 1 minute, calculate the increase in temperature of the water. Chapter One . The term intrinsic heredistinguishes between the properties of pure "intrinsic" silicon and the dramatically different properties ofdoped n-type or p-type semiconductors. The n-region is the cathode and the p-region is the anode. Physics Notes Form 4 . The increase in conduction can also be explained, I guess,due to the formation of Cooper pairs and hence the creation of Phonon field. Insulators and semi-conductors have a gap above valence band followed by conduction band above it. The band model of a semiconductor suggests that at ordinary temperatures there is a finite possibility thatelectrons can reach the conduction band and contribute to electrical conduction. Here are a few spotted questions you might want to go through for your 'last minute' preparation. Each of these 4 electrons are shared with another 4 silicon atoms to form 4 pairs of covalent bonds. The modulated wave is given out by the transmitting aerial and received by another aerial in a radio or TV when they cause vibrations between the earth and the aerial. Lens are used in making spectacles, cameras, cinema projectors, microscopes and telescopes. In this case the semi-conductor is given atoms by an impurity and this impurity is known as donor so it is given donor atoms (donated). Science is divided into three areas namely Biology, Physics and Chemistry. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Share via Whatsapp. The bonded valence electrons are not free to move. Conductors are materials that contain free electrons which carry an electrical charge from one point to another. PHYSICS: FORM FOUR: Topic 5 - ELECTRONIC Msomi Bora. They are mainly made of glass or plastic. It is typical to use B, Since the n-type region has a high electron concentration and the p type a high hole concentration, electrons diffuse from the n-type side to the p-type side. The junctions are made by combining an n-type and p-type semi-conductor. SPM Physics Form 5 - Amplitude, Period, Frequency and Wavelength of Waves. Then we can see that the transistor is a current operated device (Beta model) and that a large current ( Ic ) flows freely through the device between the collector and the emitter terminals when the transistor is switched “fully-ON”. PCB design: multiple layers vs heavier copper. Microphones and speaker are perfect examples of analog devices. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors. However when a large number of atoms are brought together the difference between their energy levels become very small, such that some intervals of energy contain no orbitals and this theory makes an assumption that these energy levels are as numerous as to be indistinct. PHYSICS FOR FORM FOUR NOTES: OPEN THE DOCUMENT Admin Tuesday, April 17, 2018. Therefore the scope they can cover is also very small. Content suitable for form 1 to four physics students. Physics. Conduction band is the range of electron energy higher than that of the valence band sufficient to make electrons free (delocalized) ; responsible for transfer of electric charge. New posts New media New media comments New resources Latest activity. Examples are Silicon and Germanium. Explain the concept of energy bands in solids, Difference between Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators, Distinguish between conductors, semiconductors and insulators. Members. District mocks,kcse past papers,notes,form 1- 4 papers available on PHYSICS FORM FOUR CHAPTER ONE THIN LENSES. They are mainly made of glass or plastic. Make sure you enter all the required information, indicated by an asterisk (*). Doping heavily may increase their conductivity by a factor greater than a million. There are two types of transistors, which have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit: A bipolar transistor has three terminals labeled, For a field-effect transistor, the terminals are labeled. Guru Thong, I am teacher from SMK Sungai Pelek, Could you share me the answer of module form 4 and form 5 physics? 3.4.2 Energy losses in a transformer 3.4.3 Analysing transformers (MRSM trial 2010) 3.5 Analysing the generation and transmission of electricity *free dowmload pdf format notes 4. Physics Topic By Topic Questions and Answers for All Topics in Form 1, Form 2, Form 3 and Form 4 for Kenya Secondary Schools in preparation for KCSE . An insulator is a material or object which resists flow of heat (thermal insulator) or electrical charges (electrical insulators ). Physics Notes Form 4 . Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. ELECTRONICS - Form 4 Physics Notes . Equivalence of various forms of flux linkage. Digital information has certain properties that distinguish it from analog communication methods. Any solid has a large number of bands (theoretically infinite). Examples are paraffin, wood, rubber, plastics etc. Form Two Physics revision questions on all topics including Magnetism, Measurement II, Turning Effect of Force, Reflection at Curved Surfaces, Magnetic Effect of an Electric Current Hooke's Law, Waves, Sound, Fluids Law and more. An intrinsic semi-conductor is one which is pure enough such that the impurities in it do not significantly affect its electrical behavior. There are different types of diodes, the following are the most common ones: The Construction of a Half-wave and Full-Wave Rectifier, Construct a half-wave and full-Wave rectifier, Describe the construction of a PNP transistor, Explain the mode of action of a PNP transistor. Physics Form Four Notes . They are then demodulated by a diode and hence heard as a sound or image. The electrical conductivityof intrinsic semiconductors increase with increasing temperature. The Effects of Temperature on the Conductivity of Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators, Describe the effect of temperature on the conductivity of conductors, semiconductors and insulators. Also when the base current is high the corresponding collector current will also be high resulting in the base current controlling the collector current. SBP or MRSM Past Year Book. Thin Lences. (5 valence electrons) produce n-type semiconductors by contributing extra electrons. 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